砂拉越（Sarawak）的旧名称为砂罗越、砂𦛨越或砂劳越，简称砂或砂州（区别沙巴的“沙”或“沙州”）。 马来西亚华语规范理事会（语范）于2004年 依循砂拉越华族文化协会，将“Sarawak”的中文译名统一为砂拉越， 从此以后，全马来西亚所有的中文媒体皆使用“砂拉越”。
古晋北市（Kuching North City）市政局：16万5642人
古晋南市（Kuching South City）市政局：15万9490万人
砂拉越人口还可以分为27个民族和40个次民族（Sub-ethnic）。伊班（Iban）族占30.3%成为全砂拉越最大的族群，马来人占24.4%居二，华族占24.2%居三。 接下来的族群人口排列为比达友（Bidayuh）占8.4%、内陆居民(Orang Ulu)占6.7%、马兰诺（Melanau）占5.4%、印度人只占0.3%，其它占0.3%。
弄巴旺/内陆居民（Lun Bawang/Orang Ulu）1万5754人
124,450平方公里的土地总面积让砂拉越几乎与西马半岛或英格兰一样大，也比北韩和新墨西哥的土地总面积略微大一些。砂拉越坐落在北纬（North of the Equator）0.50度至5度、东经109.36度至115.40度之间，拥有面向南中国海约800公里长的海岸线，并被南中国海与西马半岛隔离长达600公里。砂拉越北部与汶莱和沙巴毗邻，南部则与印尼的加里曼丹毗邻；砂拉越与加里曼丹是由婆罗洲的中央山脉隔开。
砂拉越最长的河流为拉让江（长达590公里），也是马来西亚最长的河流；其它主要的河流还有砂拉越河、鲁巴河（Batang Lupar）、沙里巴斯河（Sungai Saribas），巴南河、林梦河以及特鲁桑河（Sungai Trusan）皆注入于汶莱湾，砂拉越最高的山为姆鲁山（Gunung Murud）（海拔2423米高）
About 80 per cent or almost 10 million hectares of Sarawak’s total land area is covered with forest (natural as well as secondary and planted forests). The remaining 2.3 million hectares are under settlements, towns, agricultural crop cultivation and native customary rights land. Sarawak’s rainforest is acknowledged to be among the world’s most distinct and species-rich.
Sarawak has an equatorial climate. The temperature is relatively constant throughout the year – within the range of 23°C early in the morning to 33°C during the day. In highland areas such as Bario, the temperature ranges between 16 and 25°C during the day and gets as low as 11°C on some nights.
The northeast monsoon, usually between November and Febuary, brings heavy rain, while the southwest monsoon from June to October is usually milder. The average rainfall per year is between 3,300 mm and 4,600 mm, depending on locality. Humidity is consistently high in the lowlands, ranging from 80% to 90%.
Sarawak is Malaysia’s largest state by area, the 4th largest by population, and is one of the three sovereign nations that formed the Federation of Malaysia on 16th September 1963, the others being Malaya and Sabah (a fourth, Singapore, withdrew from the Federation in 1965). The ConsƟtutional Head of State is the Yang di Pertua Negeri who is appointed by the Supreme Sovereign, the Yang Di Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. The state is governed by the majority grouping in the elected State Legislative Assembly, which is headed by the Chief Minister, who is assisted by a Cabinet of Ministers and Assistant Ministers.
Sarawak is presently divided into 11 administrative divisions – Kuching, Sri Aman, Sibu, Miri, Limbang, Sarikei, Kapit, Kota Samarahan, Bintulu, Mukah and Betong. Kuching is the seat of government for modern Sarawak and is home to some 458,300 people making it the highest populated city in Sarawak and the 7th highest populated city in Malaysia. Sarawak has a Chief Minister, which heads a Cabinet of Ministers.
The Chief Minister is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Negeri (or Governor), from amongst members of the State’s Legislative Council. Elections are held every five years. The present Chief Minister is YAB Pehin Sri Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri (Dr) Haji Abdul Taib Mahmud. Kuching is also where the Head of the State of Sarawak, the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor) His Excellency Tun Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Abang Barieng resides.
Red symbolises the courage, confidence and sacrifices of the people in their efforts to achieve and maintain progress in the state. Yellow represents the supremacy of the law and the unity found amongst Sarawak’s diverse races. Black denotes the abundant natural resources of Sarawak: petroleum and timber. The yellow nine-pointed star represents the nine divisions and the aspirations of the people to improve their quality of life.
The Bunga Raya (Hibiscus) – the national flower appears on the right and left of the bird’s legs while the banner or ribbon on which the bird’s stand carries the new State Motto “Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti” (United, Industrious, Dedicated). Positioned on the bird’s chest is a shield bearing the state colours-black, red and yellow.
Sarawak Tanah Air Ku
Negeri Ku Tanah Air Ku Sarawak
Engkaulah Tanah Pusaka Ku
Tanah Tumpah Darah Ku
Ibu Pertiwi Ku
Rakyat Hidup Mesra dan Bahagia
Damai Muhibbah Sentiasa
Bersatu Berusaha Berbakti
Untuk Sarawak Ku Cintai
Sarawak Dalam Malaysia
Aman Makmur Rahmat Tuhan Maha Esa
Kekallah Sarawak Bertuah
Teras Perjuangan Rakyat
The economic activity of Sarawak is mostly dominated by mining, agriculture and forestry sectors. Other sectors like manufacturing, wholesale, retail trading and construction also contributed to the State’s income. The primary sectors (i.e., mining, agriculture, and forestry) make up about 40 per cent of the state’s total real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), followed by the secondary sector (i.e., manufacturing and construction) with about slightly more than 30 per cent of total real GDP.
Sarawak is blessed with an abundance of natural resources. LNG and petroleum have provided the mainstay of the state’s economy for decades. Sarawak is also one of the world’s largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber. However, the state government has imposed strict log-production quotas over the recent years to ensure sustainable forestry management. Sarawak still, however, produces approximately 9 to 10 million cubic metres of logs annually.
With such vast land expanse, Sarawak has large tracts of land suitable for commercial agricultural development. Approximately 32 per cent or about 4.0 million hectares of the state’s total land area have been identified as suitable agricultural land. Nevertheless, less than 9 per cent of this is planted with productive permanent crops, while the balance is still under shifting cultivation for hill paddy (rice) that is estimated at more than 1.6 million hectares.
The main commercial crops are oil palm, which has been increasing steadily over the years as well as sago, and pepper. Since the 1980s, Sarawak has started to diversify and transform its economy into a more industrialised one. This endeavour has been seeing continuing success, with manufacturing and hi-tech industries now playing a significant role in shaping the economic expansion of the state.
Every person entering Malaysia must possess a valid national Passport or internationally recognised Travel Document valid for travel to Malaysia. Any person not in possession of a Passport or Travel Document that is recognised by the Malaysian Government must obtain a Document in lieu of Passport. Application for the Document in lieu of Passport can be made at any Malaysian Representative Office abroad. Holders of Travel Documents like a Certificate of Identity, Laisser Passer, Titre de Voyage or a Country’s Certificate of Permanent Residence must ensure that their return to the country that issued the document or the country of residence is guaranteed. The documents shall be valid, for more than six (6) months from the date of entry into Malaysia.
Foreign nationals who require a Visa to enter Malaysia must apply and obtain a Visa in advance at the Malaysian Representative Office before entering the country. A visa is an endorsement in a passport or other recognised travel document of foreigner indicating that the holder has applied for permission to enter Malaysia and that permission has been granted.
Foreign nationals who require a Visa to enter Malaysia must apply and obtain a Visa in advance at any Malaysian Representative Office abroad before entering the country. Visa that has been granted is not absolute guarantee that the holder will be allowed to enter Malaysia. The final decision lies with the Immigration Officer at the entry point.
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Return Travel Ticket and Sufficient Funds
A visitor is also required to present proof of his financial ability to finance his/her stay in Malaysia together with a confirmed return ticket to another destination.
Any person classified under Section 8 of Immigration Act 1959/63 will not be allowed to enter Malaysia even though he/she is in possession of a valid Passport or Travel Document, Visa, travel ticket and sufficient funds.
A visitor is required to complete the Arrival/Departure Card (Imm.26) upon arrival at the gazette entry points. This card is obtainable at any entry point, Malaysian Representative office abroad or travel agencies.
A visitor must present his/her passport together with the duly completed arrival / departure card to the Immigration officer on duty and he/she must ensure that the passport or travel document is endorsed with the appropriate pass before leaving the immigration counter.