前往砂拉越

“砂拉越”官方名字由来

砂拉越(Sarawak)的旧名称为砂罗越砂𦛨越砂劳越,简称砂或砂州(区别沙巴的“沙”或“沙州”)。 马来西亚华语规范理事会(语范)于2004年 依循砂拉越华族文化协会,将“Sarawak”的中文译名统一砂拉越, 从此以后,全马来西亚所有的中文媒体皆使用“砂拉越”。

人口统计-地区

根据2010年的统计,全砂共有240万人口,人口密度为每平方公里20人,成为全国人口密度最低。砂拉越人口主要集中在城市地区,人口分布受城市化效应、经济成长和就业机会等影响。 其中聚居在4大城市,即:

古晋(Kuching):60万人口

美里(Miri):30万人口

诗巫(Sibu):25万人口

民都鲁(Bintulu):18万人口

地方议会统计(截至2010年)
巴达旺(Padawan)市议会管辖区:27万3485人
美里(Miri)市政局:23万4541人
民都鲁(Bintulu)发展局:18万3402人
古晋北市(Kuching North City)市政局:16万5642人
诗巫(Sibu)市议会:16万2676人
古晋南市(Kuching South City)市政局:15万9490万人
西连(Serian)县议会:8万 9078人
三马拉汉(Samarahan)县议会:8万5495其他地方议会
诗巫乡村议会:7万7489人
斯里阿曼(Sri Aman):6万4500人
马鲁帝(Marudi):6万2883人
木中(Betong):6万零728人
泗里街(Sarikei):5万6228人
苏必士(Subis):5万5733人
加帛(Kapit):5万5304人
石隆门(Bau):5万2760人
林梦(Limbang):4万6980人
砂拉卓(Saratok):4万5015人
沐胶(Mukah):4万1481人
实文然(Siburan):3万8324人
老越(Lawas):3万7212人
布拉甲(Belaga):3万5247人
伦乐(Lundu):3万2568人
雅沙再也(Asajaya):3万1190人
达佬(Daro):2万9975人
达岛(Tatau):2万9592人
马拉端(Meradong):2万8713人
加拿逸(Kanowit):2万8259人
鲁勃安都(Lubok Antu):2万7363人
实兰沟(Selangau):2万2318人
桑(Song):2万零105人
打叻(Tarat):1万8523人
玛都(Matu):1万6952人
如楼(Julau):1万5449人
巴干(Pakan):1万5139

人口统计-族群

砂拉越人口还可以分为27个民族和40个次民族(Sub-ethnic)。伊班(Iban)族占30.3%成为全砂拉越最大的族群,马来人占24.4%居二,华族占24.2%居三。 接下来的族群人口排列为比达友(Bidayuh)占8.4%、内陆居民(Orang Ulu)占6.7%、马兰诺(Melanau)占5.4%、印度人只占0.3%,其它占0.3%。

砂拉越原住民排名(截至2010年)
砂拉越的原住民人口统计:将近115万人
伊班(Iban)占693358人或60.41%
比达友(Bidayuh)192960人或16.80%
马兰诺(Melanau)119897人或10.45%
加央/内陆居民(Kayan/Orang Ulu)26333人
肯亚/内陆居民(Kenyah/Orang Ulu)23167人
卡达央/内陆居民(Kendayan/Orang Ulu)16478人
弄巴旺/内陆居民(Lun Bawang/Orang Ulu)15754人
本南/内陆居民(Penan/Orang Ulu)12485砂拉越华人(大约56万人口)的籍贯排名(截至2010年)
福州人:21万人(37.5%)
客家人:17万7千人(31.6%)
福建人:8万1千人 (14.5%) 
潮州人:3万6千人 (6.4%)
广东人:2万2千人 (3.9%)
兴化人:1万3千500人 (2.4%)
海南人:7千300人 (1.3%)
广西人:1千300人 (0.3%)
其他:1万3千人 (2.1%)

*注:砂拉越人口调查结果是每10年出炉一次,下次最新的砂拉越人口调查结果是2020年。

地理

124,450平方公里的土地总面积让砂拉越几乎与西马半岛或英格兰一样大,也比北韩和新墨西哥的土地总面积略微大一些。砂拉越坐落在北纬(North of the Equator)0.50度至5度、东经109.36度至115.40度之间,拥有面向南中国海约800公里长的海岸线,并被南中国海与西马半岛隔离长达600公里。砂拉越北部与汶莱和沙巴毗邻,南部则与印尼的加里曼丹毗邻;砂拉越与加里曼丹是由婆罗洲的中央山脉隔开。

砂拉越最长的河流为拉让江(长达590公里),也是马来西亚最长的河流;其它主要的河流还有砂拉越河、鲁巴河(Batang Lupar)、沙里巴斯河(Sungai Saribas),巴南河、林梦河以及特鲁桑河(Sungai Trusan)皆注入于汶莱湾,砂拉越最高的山为姆鲁山(Gunung Murud)(海拔2423米高)

About 80 per cent or almost 10 million hectares of Sarawak’s total land area is covered with forest (natural as well as secondary and planted forests).  The remaining 2.3 million hectares are under settlements, towns, agricultural crop cultivation and native customary rights land.  Sarawak’s rainforest is acknowledged to be among the world’s most distinct and species-rich.

气候/天气

Sarawak has an equatorial climate.  The temperature is relatively constant throughout the year – within the range of 23°C early in the morning to 33°C during the day.  In highland areas such as Bario, the temperature ranges between 16 and 25°C during the day and gets as low as 11°C on some nights.

The northeast monsoon, usually between November and Febuary, brings heavy rain, while the southwest monsoon from June to October is usually milder.   The average rainfall per year is between 3,300 mm and 4,600 mm, depending on locality.  Humidity is consistently high in the lowlands, ranging from 80% to 90%.

Political Status

Sarawak is Malaysia’s largest state by area, the 4th largest by population, and is one of the three sovereign nations that formed the Federation of Malaysia on 16th September 1963, the others being Malaya and Sabah (a fourth, Singapore, withdrew from the Federation in 1965).  The ConsƟtutional Head of State is the Yang di Pertua Negeri who is appointed by the Supreme Sovereign, the Yang Di Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.  The state is governed by the majority grouping in the elected State Legislative Assembly, which is headed by the Chief Minister, who is assisted by a Cabinet of Ministers and Assistant Ministers.

政府

Sarawak is presently divided into 11 administrative divisions – Kuching, Sri Aman, Sibu, Miri, Limbang, Sarikei, Kapit, Kota Samarahan, Bintulu, Mukah and Betong. Kuching is the seat of government for modern Sarawak and is home to some 458,300 people making it the highest populated city in Sarawak and the 7th highest populated city in Malaysia. Sarawak has a Chief Minister, which heads a Cabinet of Ministers.
The Chief Minister is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Negeri (or Governor), from amongst members of the State’s Legislative Council. Elections are held every five years. The present Chief Minister is YAB Pehin Sri Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri (Dr) Haji Abdul Taib Mahmud. Kuching is also where the Head of the State of Sarawak, the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor) His Excellency Tun Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Abang Barieng resides.

州旗

flag_sarawak

Red symbolises the courage, confidence and sacrifices of the people in their efforts to achieve and maintain progress in the state. Yellow represents the supremacy of the law and the unity found amongst Sarawak’s diverse races. Black denotes the abundant natural resources of Sarawak: petroleum and timber. The yellow nine-pointed star represents the nine divisions and the aspirations of the people to improve their quality of life.

州旗

gov_logo_sarawak

The Bunga Raya (Hibiscus) – the national flower appears on the right and left of the bird’s legs while the banner or ribbon on which the bird’s stand carries the new State Motto “Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti” (United, Industrious, Dedicated). Positioned on the bird’s chest is a shield bearing the state colours-black, red and yellow.

国歌(马来语)

Sarawak Tanah Air Ku
Negeri Ku Tanah Air Ku Sarawak
Engkaulah Tanah Pusaka Ku
Tanah Tumpah Darah Ku
Ibu Pertiwi Ku
Rakyat Hidup Mesra dan Bahagia
Damai Muhibbah Sentiasa
Bersatu Berusaha Berbakti
Untuk Sarawak Ku Cintai
Sarawak Dalam Malaysia
Aman Makmur Rahmat Tuhan Maha Esa
Kekallah Sarawak Bertuah
Teras Perjuangan Rakyat
Berjaya Berdaulat

经济

The economic activity of Sarawak is mostly dominated by mining, agriculture and forestry sectors. Other sectors like manufacturing, wholesale, retail trading and construction also contributed to the State’s income. The primary sectors (i.e., mining, agriculture, and forestry) make up about 40 per cent of the state’s total real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), followed by the secondary sector (i.e., manufacturing and construction) with about slightly more than 30 per cent of total real GDP.

Sarawak is blessed with an abundance of natural resources. LNG and petroleum have provided the mainstay of the state’s economy for decades. Sarawak is also one of the world’s largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber. However, the state government has imposed strict log-production quotas over the recent years to ensure sustainable forestry management. Sarawak still, however, produces approximately 9 to 10 million cubic metres of logs annually.

With such vast land expanse, Sarawak has large tracts of land suitable for commercial agricultural development. Approximately 32 per cent or about 4.0 million hectares of the state’s total land area have been identified as suitable agricultural land. Nevertheless, less than 9 per cent of this is planted with productive permanent crops, while the balance is still under shifting cultivation for hill paddy (rice) that is estimated at more than 1.6 million hectares.

The main commercial crops are oil palm, which has been increasing steadily over the years as well as sago, and pepper. Since the 1980s, Sarawak has started to diversify and transform its economy into a more industrialised one. This endeavour has been seeing continuing success, with manufacturing and hi-tech industries now playing a significant role in shaping the economic expansion of the state.

移民局

Every person entering Malaysia must possess a valid national Passport or internationally recognised Travel Document valid for travel to Malaysia. Any person not in possession of a Passport or Travel Document that is recognised by the Malaysian Government must obtain a Document in lieu of Passport. Application for the Document in lieu of Passport can be made at any Malaysian Representative Office abroad. Holders of Travel Documents like a Certificate of Identity, Laisser Passer, Titre de Voyage or a Country’s Certificate of Permanent Residence must ensure that their return to the country that issued the document or the country of residence is guaranteed. The documents shall be valid, for more than six (6) months from the date of entry into Malaysia.

签证要求

Foreign nationals who require a Visa to enter Malaysia must apply and obtain a Visa in advance at the Malaysian Representative Office before entering the country. A visa is an endorsement in a passport or other recognised travel document of foreigner indicating that the holder has applied for permission to enter Malaysia and that permission has been granted.

Foreign nationals who require a Visa to enter Malaysia must apply and obtain a Visa in advance at any Malaysian Representative Office abroad before entering the country. Visa that has been granted is not absolute guarantee that the holder will be allowed to enter Malaysia. The final decision lies with the Immigration Officer at the entry point.

Read more here for Visa requirement by Country

Return Travel Ticket and Sufficient Funds

A visitor is also required to present proof of his financial ability to finance his/her stay in Malaysia together with a confirmed return ticket to another destination.

非禁止人士

Any person classified under Section 8 of Immigration Act 1959/63 will not be allowed to enter Malaysia even though he/she is in possession of a valid Passport or Travel Document, Visa, travel ticket and sufficient funds.

到达/离开卡(IMM.26)

A visitor is required to complete the Arrival/Departure Card (Imm.26) upon arrival at the gazette entry points. This card is obtainable at any entry point, Malaysian Representative office abroad or travel agencies.

A visitor must present his/her passport together with the duly completed arrival / departure card to the Immigration officer on duty and he/she must ensure that the passport or travel document is endorsed with the appropriate pass before leaving the immigration counter.